Here you will find a collection of concepts and FAQs to help you select the material you need.

More resilience means worse machining?

Not always, if the resilience is obtained with a thermal treatment it will have better mechanical properties and also good machining properties.

Are precision tubes and conduction tubes the same?

No, the conduction tube has no heat treatment and it is usually sold welded. The calibrated precision tube receives a specific treatment and keeps its properties after further processing of the tubes.

What does the tolerance mean when supplying a tube?

When you ask for a dimension, you usually speak about the nominal size. You may take into account that there are tolerances for the outside diameter and the wall thickness. The tolerances are positive nor negative so you should ask for a proper dimension in order to machining.

Metal shaving machining could be done on a Chromed Steel bar?

Chrome gives an special hardness: 67 HRc, so machining it is not usually done on it.

What does yield stress mean?

It is the tensile load bearing material until its deformation.

What is tensile strength?

Once the deformation of the material is produced, it is followed by an increasing tensile stress until failure occurs. Full test measures the “tensile strength” and the elongation in% of the material.

What is the standard supplying length for a bar?

There is no standard length. It depends on the raw material (billet) used in the extrusion of the perforated bar. Although for better handling we consider the approximate length of 6 meters.

Recommendations for centering the bar when machining.

Because of the tolerances, the bar should be previously measured to center it on the outside or inside diameter. That´s how we avoid wastes of material.

Measuring Hardness in a hollow carbon steel bar.

It should be done using the Brinell or Vickers´ tables, never HRc since it could distort the data. HRc hardness is only used for high resistance steel bars.

What does the different treatments of steel mean?

  • +C Crude. The tubes are supplied without any heat treatment, after the final cold stretching
  • +A Annealed. Thermal treatment in controlled atmosphere to reduce hardness and increase ductility and help eliminate internal stresses, is applied after cold stretching.
  • +N Normalized. Standardization in controlled atmosphere to ensure a thinner homogeneous grain structure with predictable properties and machinability.
  • +LC Skin passed. Cold laminating is carried out in one pass after the last Heat Treatment.
  • +SR Heat de-escalation treatment. Low-temperature heat treatment that leaves mechanical characteristics unchanged and increases run-off by more than 15%.



Age hardening. Precipitation hardening, ripening, aging.

Air furnance. Reverberatory oven.

Air quenching. Air temper.

Alloy. Alloy.

Alloy steel. Alloy steel.

Allowable stress. Allowable fatigue.

Annealing. Annealing.

Anodizing. Anodized.

Arc furnance. Air oven.

Arc welding. Arc welding.

As cast condition. In cast state.

As drawn. Cold drawn tube without heat treatment.

As rolled condition. In rolling state.

Austenitic stainless steel. Austenitic stainless steel.

Babbit metal. Babbitt metal.

Back bench metod Cold tube drawing on mandrel.

Backing roll mill, Backed up mill. Cold strip rolling mill.

Bainite Bainite.

Bar mill Commercial bar rolling mill.

Bearing Bearing.

Bending test Bending test.

Billet Billet.

Black plate Black veneer, uncoated.

Blacksmith welding Forging welding.

Blackwork. Rolled or forged parts without removing scale.

Blast furnance. Blast furnace.

Bloom. Roughing (of rolling).

Blooming. Square rough rolling.

Blowhole. Pore, blowhole.


Boiling point.Boiling point.

Brass. Brass.

Brazing. Hard solder.

Breaking load. Breaking load.

Breaking stress. Breaking stress.

Brigth annealing. Bright annealed.

Brinell hardness. Brinell hardness.

Brittle. Fragile.

Bolt. Bolt.

Bore out. Drilled.

Browned steel. Blued steel.

Bundle. Batch, bundle, bundle.

Bushing metal. Bearing metal.

Butt welding. Butt weld.

Camber. Convexity.

Calorizing. Heating.

Capped steel. Semi-hot steel.

Carbide. Carbide.

Carbon steel. Carbon Steel.

Carbonizing. Cementation.

Case carburizing/hardening. Cementation in box.

Cast. Casting, strain.

Cementite. Cementite.

Centrifugal casting. Centrifugal laundry.

Chaplets. Molding core holders.

Charcoal . Charcoal.

Chill. Molding cooler.

Chip. Chip.

Chill mold. Shell.

Chromated steel. Chrome steel.

Chromeisen. Ferrochrome.

Clad materials. They are corrosion resistant materials, which are applied to laminate coat others with less resistance, but with better mechanical properties..

Clay. Clay.

Clenup. The amount of additional metal required to obtain the desired dimension.

Cloating. Protective coating against corrosion.

Cod. Green sand male.

Coil. Wire coil, strip, coil.

Coke. Cok, coke.

Coke pig. Coked iron.

Cold Sinking. Drawn tube without mandrel.

Cold working. Cold work.

Condition. State (as temper condition, in tempered state).

Continous casting. Continuous casting.

Converter. Converter.

Conveyor belt. Conveyer belt.

Cope. Top of a molding box.

Core. Male, core, core.

Coreless induction furnance. Coreless smelting furnace.

Corrugation. Undulation.

Crack. Crack.

Creep. Creep.

Cross country. Parallel distribution of the boxes in the rolling mill.

Crucible. Melting pot.

Cupola. Beaker.

Cutting tools. Cutting tools.

Cyaniding. Cyanidation.

Damping capacity. Buffer capacity.

Dead. Calmed down.

Dead annealing. Thorough annealed.

Deadhead. Lingo.

Die. Metal mold, matrix.

Die plate. Wire drawing line.

Dip brazing. Hard dip soldering.

Discard. Topping.

Drawing. In heat treatment, it means tempering, in drawing or drawn wire manufacturing.

Drawplate. Row.

Draw tempering. Rested.

Drawing back. Resurrect.

Dredge. Dredge.

Drilling. Drilling.

Drop forging. Die forging, stamping.

Ductility. Malleability.

Elastic breakdown. Fatigue.

Eccentricity. Displacement of the inside diameter with respect to the outside.

Elongation. Elongation.

Embrittlement. Embrittlement.

Endurance limit. Fatigue limit.

Etching. Attack.

Feeder. Lingo.

Ferrite. Ferrite.

Filler metal. Filler metal for welding.

Fillet. Join or fillet two surfaces using a curved surface.

Fine metal. Refined metal.

Fissure. Fissure.

Flake. Flake, bright spot.

Flame cutting. Torch cutting.

Flame hardening. Flame hardening.

Flanging test. Beading test.

Flaring test. Elongation test.

Flask. Molding box.

Flattening test. Bend test.

Flaw. Crack, defect.

Flux. Flux.

Forge. Forging.

Form. Mold.

Foundry. Foundry.

French calorie. Big calorie.

Gauge. Caliper.

Gas welding. Torch welding.

Gooseneck machine for die casting. Gooseneck Machine for Die Casting.

Grinding. Grinding, surface finishing with abrasive wheels.

Hard facing. Refers to obtaining a hard and wear resistant surface layer deposited by welding.

Hardening. Hardening.

Hardness. Hardness.

Header. Lingo.

Heat treatable steel. Bonus Steel.

Heat treatment. Heat treatment.

High duty cast iron. Cast iron with high characteristics.

High speed steel. Fast cutting steel.

Honed. Lapping with stones.

Hydraesfer process. Steam browning procedure.

Ihrigizing. Silication.

Inert gas shielded arc welding. Arc welding in a protective inert gas atmosphere.

Ingot. Ingot.

Internal stress. Internal tension.

Iron ore. Iron ore.

Killed steel . Calm steel.

Ladle. Ladle or ladle for transporting molten metal.

Lathe. Turnstile.

Lattice. Reticle.

Lead. Lead.

Letting down tints. Temper colors.

Lime. Lime, calcium oxide.

Limestone. Limestone.

Lining. Coating.

Loop. Loup.

Mandrel mill. Continuous train.

Martempering. Isothermal quenching to obtain martensite.

Melt. Melt.

Merchant bar. Commercial bar.

Mild steel. Mild steel.

Millind. Milling.

Molding frame. Tap.

Molten metal. Molten or liquid metal.

Mottled cast iron. Crushed cast iron.

Necking. Constriction (area reduction in tensile break test).

Nital. Reagent for attack in metallography.

Normalizing. Normalized.

Notch . Notch.

Nozzle. Nozzle, injector.

Open hearth furnance. Martin Siemens oven, open hearth oven.

Open poured/ open steel. Effervescent Steel.

Ore. Mineral.

Pack carburizing. Solid cementation.

Parent material. In welding, mother material.

Patenting. Heat treatment to obtain fine pearlite.

Perlite. Perlite.

Peat. Peat coal.

Permanent set. Permanent deformation.

Pickling. Stripping.

Pier. Column or pillar.

Pig iron. Blast furnace cast iron.

Pinhole. Pore, fine pit.

Pit,Pitting. Sting, superficial defect.

Plate. Griddle.

Porous. Porous.

Pot furnance. Crucible furnace.

Powder metallurgy. Powder metallurgy.

Quenching. Temper.

Ramming. Attacked, rammed.

Reagents. Reagents.

Reclamation. Regeneration.

Reducing flame. Reducing flame.

Rifle. Fluted.

Rimmed, rimming steel. Effervescent Steel.

Rising gate. Drinker.

Rocking arc furnance. Indirect Arc Furnace.

Rod. rod.

Rod mill . Round rolling mill.

Rolling. Lamination.

Rust. Rust.

Rust-proaf coating. Anti-oxidation coating.

Scale. Scale produced in rolling or forging.

Scrap. Scrap.

Screw steel. Steel for screws.

Seamless tube. Seamless pipe.

Season cracking. Breakage produced by the combined action of internal stresses and atmospheric effects.

Semikilled. Semi calmed.

Shearing strengh. Shear strength.

Sheet. Thin sheet.

Shielded arc welding. Arc welding with shielding gases for the coating.

Shrinkage. Concentration, squeeze.

Side blow converter. Side blow converter.

Sieve. Sieve, strainer.

Silicon. Silicon.

Sking hardening. Surface hardening.

Skip. Loading mechanism for ovens.

Skived. Blade lapping.

Slab. Rolling slab.

Slip bands. Slip belts.

Sliver. Soy.

Soaking. Staying at a temperature so that the heat penetrates the interior of the piece.

Soft annealing. Annealed to soften.

Soft mill. Roughing train.

Soft roll. Grinding cylinders.

Soldering. Soft solder.

Sound. Healthy, without defects, especially pores and lumps.

Spar. Fluor spar.

Spelter. Brass used as filler metal.

Splitting. Chipping, Esfoliation.

Spot welding. Spot welding.

Spring pin. Bolt.

Spring steel. Furniture steel.

Sprue. Pouring channel.

Spun iron. Centrifugal casting.

Stove. Stove.

Strain. Deformation of a metal under load.

Strain hardening. Strain hardening.

Strenght. Breaking strength.

Stress. Tension, effort.

Striction. Strition.

Strip. Unling.

Strip sheet. Sheet metal strip or roll.

Sulphur. Sulfur.

Surface texture parameters. Roughness parameters.

Tap. Strain or bleed an oven.

Tapping hole. Pouring hole.

Tapping slag. Final slag.

Temper brittleness. Temper brittleness.

Tempering. Rested.

Tensile strength. Tensile strength.

Tensile test. Tensile test.

Test bar. Test bar.

Tin. Tin.

Tolerance. Tolerance.

Torch. Blowtorch.

Toughness. Tenacity.

Treatment crack. Heat treatment crack.

Tube. Tube.

Tube drawing. Tube stretching.

Tuyere. Nozzle.

Ultimate stregth. Breaking load.

Unkilled. Effervescent.

Uphead. Emphasize in the forge.

Wall thickness. Thickness.

Water hardening/ quenching. Water temper.

Wearing test. Wear test.

Welding rod. Welding rod.

Work hardening. Strain hardening.

Wrought steel. Forged steel.

Yield point. Creep limit.

Yield strength. Elastic limit.

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